Some people eat, sleep and chew gum, I do genealogy and write...

Monday, October 22, 2018

Why Genealogy?


Each of us follows our own path that takes into the world of genealogical research. Some years ago, I wrote a series of posts on the demographics of genealogy. I found that the demographics of genealogy has been the subject of several scholarly articles. Some of the studies report on the relationship of genealogy to generativity. In case this is a new term for you, generativity is defined as a concern for people besides self and family that usually develops during middle age. See https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/generativity. Here are three studies that have considered generativity in the context of genealogy.
  • Drake, Pamela Jo Willenbring. 2001. Successful aging: investment in genealogy as a function of generativity, mobility and sense of place.
  • Umfleet, S. Bradley. Genealogy and Generativity in Older Adults, A Social Work 298 Special Project Presented to the Faculty of the College of Social Work San José State University. Special Project, (M.A.) San José State University, San José, California, 2009. 
  • Hackstaff K.B. 2009. ""Turning points" for aging genealogists: Claiming identities and histories in time". Qualitative Sociology Review. 5 (1): 130-151.
I think I jumped the gun a little, my interest in genealogy began when I was in my late 30s and had nothing to do with any of the assumed motivations explored in the above publications. As a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, I was exposed to the concept of doing genealogy or family history at a very early age as part of my religious background. My home, during my childhood, had shelves of books that included several surname books about my own ancestors. We were also told stories about prominent ancestors that became part of my oral heritage. Basically, genealogy became an interest that amalgamated several of my skills and interests including history and research. Genealogical research has always been so challenging that it has managed to keep my interest for over 36 years of intensive involvement. 

Just today, I was talking to one of the volunteers in the Maryland State Archives where we are digitizing records for FamilySearch and he mentioned to me that he had never learned how to type. I am fairly certain that had I never learned how to type, that my interest in computers and in genealogy would have been significantly reduced. Attempts to explain the motivation of genealogists would have to take into account the fact that the numbers of people who are involved include some rather distinct levels. As I have written about in many previous posts, genealogy per se is not a very popular area of interest compared to interests such as movies, sports, and a myriad other interests. The fact that millions of people have taken DNA tests or posted a family tree online does not indicate more than curiosity. Interest in genealogy may be increasing, but many of the indicators of interest such as attendance at genealogy conferences seen to suggest that active, participatory interest is either stable or on the decline. 

So why should anyone be interested in genealogy? The usual pat answer to this question involves discovering one's "roots." The genesis of this interest is attributed to a TV series called "Roots" that aired back in 1977. This date is significant because it pre-dates the development of the internet and all of the current large, online, genealogical database programs. The largest of these websites is clearly MyHeritage.com with more than 99 million users and 43 million family trees. Even these apparently large numbers are only slightly more than one-tenth of one percent of the total world population. You can compare this to statistics that indicate that approximately 43% of the people in the world are interested or very interested in Soccer (Football). See https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-06-12/soccer-is-the-world-s-most-popular-sport-and-still-growing.

Because of my church membership, many of the people I associate with consider their genealogy to be "all done." What they usually mean by this is that they know most of their ancestors back from four to six or more generations. But this viewpoint is usually focused on either direct line ancestors or descendency from a prominent person. I could certainly have gotten that impression from the books I have available to me as a child. It was only after my interest in genealogical research expanded past the point of casual interest that I began to realize that comparatively little real genealogical work had been done on even my direct line ancestors. 

As with any special interest from bird watching to raising rabbits, once you become significantly involved in the interest, you tend to find and associate with people who have the same interests. However, that is not always the case. I am significantly involved in photography but I do not go to photography conferences, nor do I take classes or associate with other photographers. I was involved in genealogy for more than twenty years before I ever took a class or attended a genealogy conference. 

Like many other interests, there are those individuals that become well known in the area. We have a number of very prominent genealogists, most of whom are professionals or semi-professionals. But the actual number of these individuals is very small. For example, the directory of the Board for Certification of Genealogists has less than 250 individuals listed. By comparison, when I was practicing law in Arizona, there were over 14,000 attorneys in the state. 

If you were to attend a major genealogical conference, such as the upcoming RootsTech 2019 Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah, you could get the impression that there are lots of people involved in genealogy. But I talk to many people around the United States who are doing genealogical research who, like I was early on in my interest, not planning on attending a conference or taking a class. There are many local, county and state genealogical societies in the United States and other countries. Some of these have a core of very active genealogists. But by and large, genealogy is not particularly a group activity where people attend for social interaction. 

I think that the reasons for an active interest in genealogy are highly personal. We should not feel bad because others do not share our interest and we should, by no means, feel isolated or unusual. Because genealogy requires a lot of different skills, it should not be surprising that there are a limited number of people who are or could become interested. In addition, we should welcome any level of interest. 

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Environment, Culture, and DNA


Many years ago, when I was in graduate school studying Linguistics, the big scientific issue, particularly about language acquisition was "Nature vs Nurture," In short, the argument was whether human language was hard-wired and therefore inherited or acquired after birth. This overly simplistic view of a complex subject has now become a major issue again but the arguments being put forth are now incorporating references to DNA. Ultimately, the genesis of the argument began with the concept of evolution. But many of the issues surrounding genealogical DNA testing are really rehashing the old dichotomy between nature and nurture. B. F. Skinner was the leader of the "nurture" camp and Noam Chomsky was the leader of the "nature" camp. It is interesting that almost all the theories propounded by both sides have now been subject to extreme revision over the years.

Reducing complex subjects to simplistic dichotomies is intellectually abhorrent. Rather than creating a fact-based dialogue, any interaction on the subject becomes propaganda. By the way, propaganda is not limited to political issues. The broad definition of propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. Not all propaganda is entirely false but it is still propaganda. Right now, we find ourselves in a virtual ocean of propaganda about DNA and DNA testing. Some genealogists paint DNA testing as the ultimate solution for unresolved genealogical (i.e. historical family history) questions. A small, but vocal, group of genealogists question DNA testing's utility beyond resolving relationship issues in the first five or six generations and paint all other conclusions as speculative and yet undetermined.

Meanwhile, the use of genealogical DNA testing to support or debunk political, social and cultural issue is expanding well beyond determining the identity of ancestors and relatives. Recently, the most prominent use of genealogical DNA testing has expanded into the criminal justice system. It is ironic that DNA testing for relationships started out as a tool in the court system for proving paternity and then moved into the genealogical arena in stages along with the online accumulation of huge genealogical tree submissions and has now begun to move back into the criminal justice system because of the accumulated data in all the online family trees. The propagandists have jumped on this bandwagon and paint the use of genealogical DNA testing as a boon to research or an extreme violation of "privacy."

Depending on your personal cultural background, you may see that publicizing information about your family is a violation of privacy or a polite necessity. For example, if you were raised speaking the Navajo language, you would be used to explaining your clan affiliations and ancestry as part of polite introductions when meeting people. We often use surnames in the broader modern culture of the United States in the same way. Frequently, when I meet someone for the first time, we inquire as to whether or not we are related to a person we know who has the same surname. However, the taboos and personal ramifications of this type of interaction are extensive. For example, let's suppose you have not spoken to a certain relative for years because of a conflict and someone you meet who knows your relative immediately asked how that relative is doing. What do you say?

Genealogical DNA testing has the potential of stripping away many of the cultural norms of our society and adding another layer of relationships and interactions that have the potential to disrupt our entire worldwide social system. We may all be forced to consider the fact that some of our basic attitudes and beliefs concerning our relationships with others have no basis in fact. The most visible of these heretofore fundamental beliefs is that of "racial" identity. Extensive DNA testing is definitely demonstrating that the concept of "race" is based entirely on superficial differences in such things as skin coloring and speech patterns. The effect of this revolutionary concept is dramatically demonstrated in the futile and pathetic attempts by some groups to preserve their personal viewpoints on "racial purity" and "racial superiority" when DNA testing shows such distinctions are illusory.

As genealogists, we have been placed squarely in the middle of this quandary. Of course, we can ignore the entire subject of DNA testing and continue to build our paper pedigrees as if the subject did not exist. Just as the genealogists who refuse to go online with their genealogical data do by claiming privacy or ownership concerns. What is certain, however, is that how we view ourselves as humans and part of a continuum of humans with few biologically-based differences will ultimately become part of what we will have to deal with as genealogists. Meanwhile, I will have to come to an understanding of how I might have acquired Southern European and Middle Eastern ancestry.

Thursday, October 18, 2018

DNA analysis providing evidence of Native American heritage?

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/oct/16/donald-trump-elizabeth-warren-dna-test
Genealogical DNA testing is in the news lately. The test results from a DNA test made public by Senator Elizabeth Warren resulted in the following statements from the President of the United States as quoted in the above article from The Guardian.
Referring to her by the racist moniker Pocahontas, Trump said: “She took a bogus DNA test and it showed that she may be 1/1024 [Native American,] far less than the average American …
"Now that her claims of being of Indian heritage have turned out to be a scam and a lie, Elizabeth Warren should apologize for perpetrating this fraud against the American Public,”
Hmm.  These comments and the rest of the controversy have elicited the following response from my expert genealogist daughter, Amy Tanner Thiriot posted on Facebook:
I've talked about the fight over Senator Elizabeth Warren's genealogy from time to time, and the woefully offensive campaign to mock her family stories and heritage. Yes, she has indigenous ancestry, and no, there never has been and never will be any excuse for anyone calling her "Pocahontas" or — more importantly — for using Native American identity as an insult or political weapon. And just in case you've heard otherwise, her political enemies are wrong about her ever being a "diversity hire." If your news outlet is telling you otherwise, you may want to find a new source for news.
Here are a few of the issues raised by the statements made by the President:

  • Were the results of a genealogical DNA test "bogus?"
  • Does the "average American" have Native American DNA?
  • What is the percentage necessary to establish Native American ancestry or any other ancestry?
  • What source did the President use to conclude the percentage of Native American ancestry in Elizabeth Warren's test?
  • Are claims of Native American ancestry (or any other ancestry for that matter) based on a genealogical DNA test a "lie and scam?"
  • Are the genealogical DNA testing companies perpetuating a fraud on the "American Public?"
  • Is calling someone a "Pocahontas" now another racist moniker? What about those people who claim descendency from Pocahontas or Rebecca Rolfe?
  • Is there something wrong with acknowledging Native American ancestry?
There are probably a lot of other questions that could be raised by these irresponsible statements. The real question from a genealogical standpoint is why is this an issue at all? 

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Genealogy Hits the Prime Time


When we came to Annapolis, Maryland, we sort of expected to see dead bodies on every corner and in every park. Not really. But that is the impression you might get from watching a popular law enforcement series from the world of TV. Now the dead are featured on a prime-time TV show called, "Family History." The story plot is about a young lady who discovers all the "family secrets" from taking a DNA test, probably from one of the sponsors of the TV show. In my family, they wouldn't have any material for even one episode so the "murder a week" plot is likely to surface in the protagonist's family.

When I write about a media production that highlights genealogy, there are always those who say any advertising is good news for genealogy. Although, I am not so sure that this is the case when you sensationalize and subsequently trivialize the real relationship between DNA testing and genealogical research. Since I don't own a TV and haven't watched network TV except in brief skip-through-the-channels experiences when we are staying in a hotel for many years, I will have to wait to watch until the show ends up in one of the online suppliers of series.

I will be watching for reviews and comments, however.

Monday, October 15, 2018

First Ever Virtual Online International Genealogy Conference



Family History Expos' Pirates of the Pedigree is the first virtual, online, international genealogy conference and it can be watched and enjoyed from home for free. If you have been to a local genealogy conference recently, you may have had a few vendor companies attending your event. The Family History Expos event has over 70 vendors from around the world including many genealogy societies and major online genealogy companies such as MyHeritage.com. You can visit all these vendors and save your back and feet. You can chat directly with many of the vendors and connect with the rest through email.


The event starts today, October 15, 2018, and will run through Saturday October 20, 2018. See this link to find out more and attend this first ever event.

Here is the video and basic blurb:

https://youtu.be/zKA9LZjwJps 

FamilyHistoryExpos.com proudly presents PIRATES OF THE PEDIGREE, the 2018 International Virtual Family History Expo this week 15-20 October 2018. It’s free and easy to watch online.

It’s free to watch, but to view the recording and the handouts, register at

https://www.familyhistoryexpos.com/viewevent/index/190/#eg‬ 


Sunday, October 14, 2018

Looking for a Recipe for Genealogy?

Julia Child's Kitchen at the Smithsonian American History Museum
If you have ever eaten something that you liked a lot, you may have thought about getting the recipe. Recipe and food websites are some of the most popular on the internet. Too bad we don't have a recipe for genealogy that would show us step by step how to make well-made family trees. Wait a minute. We do have a recipe for genealogy. It is called The Family History Guide. It is a well organized, step-by-step way to become extremely proficient in doing genealogical research and have your own well-made family tree.

If you can follow the instruction to make a simple meal, you already have all the skills you need to get started becoming a great family historian. The instructions are all on the free, organized, sequentially organized website called The Family History Guide.

TheFHGuide.com


The Family History Guide takes the complication of genealogical tasks and breaks them down into pleasant bite-sized chunks of information that will have you progressing along to mastery. Your learning experience will be aided by thousands of instructional documents and videos. You can do all of this for free.

Saturday, October 13, 2018

Looking Beyond Genealogy Websites


Because of the huge number of resources available on four or five of the largest genealogy websites, we have a tendency to focus primarily on those resources sometimes to the exclusion of other valuable genealogical records. Perhaps, we need to step back a bit and take a longer view of the genealogical research process and adjust our research habits and methodologies to the reality of document and record availability.

Let me start with a hypothetical situation. Let's suppose that I needed to do some research in North Carolina, United States for an ancestor. I could begin my research by "touching the bases" and checking for the ancestor's name etc. in each of the big online database programs. Because I touched all four or five bases does that mean I have now made a "home run" and can retire from the field? Not at all. What do I do next?

Any search we do online with websites assumes that we have accurate and complete search criteria. This means that we know the variations in the name of our ancestor and all the places where that ancestor lived. Let me give an example. Suppose I am looking for this ancestor:

Cornelius Dollarhide, b. 1746 in North Carolina, United States, d. February 1838 in unknown.

Hmm. Where would I begin to look for this person? You say the answer is obvious, you look in North Carolina. I say, maybe and maybe not. Neither the birth nor the death dates are exact and neither of the dates is associated with a specific location. One thing I did discover with my search is that there are a number of men named Cornelius Dollarhide or with variations of that name who lived about the same time in North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, and even Maryland. Which of all of those potential candidates is my target person? The main issue turned out to be between a Cornelius in Kentucky and one in Tennessee.

I began the process of expanding my research by looking in records outside of those readily searchable on the main large genealogy websites. I found my first breakthrough on a website called, "The American Revolution in North Carolina." To understand why finding a record of Cornelius in this website was important, we have to step back and look at other details. First of all, this family's verified family line comes from Mississippi. So we need to find out how they got there. It is also essential that we look at the dates and places to determine the jurisdictions of the places at the time of the events. For example, Mississippi did not become a state until December 10, 1817. Kentucky did not become a state until June 1, 1792. Tennessee was made a state on June 1, 1796. Why do these dates matter? When doing genealogical research we look for records created at or near the time of the event in the jurisdiction of the time of the event. In this family, the Cornelius' son, Thomas Jefferson Dollahite said he was born in Tennessee in every census from 1850 to 1880. Since Tennessee became a state in 1796 and the son was born in 1814, he could have been born in Tennessee. It follows that if we find the son's father is Cornelius in Tennessee, then we have good indications that we are looking at Tennessee as the place where this family lived rather than Kentucky.

At this point, I still need more information to conclude that the family in Tennessee is the same as the family in North Carolina notwithstanding the fact that Tennessee was originally a part of North Carolina. I found additional helpful information in the following book available on Google Books.

Hale, Will T. 1913. A history of Tennessee and Tennesseans: the leaders and representative men in commerce, industry, and modern activities. Chicago: Lewis Pub. Co.

In that book, it states that the Dollahite (Dollarhide) family came from North Carolina and were early settlers of Henry County, Tennessee.

As I continue to do research using a variety of sources, each new piece of information will help me to be more and more accurate. The cumulative sum of the information I find will eventually be enough to conclude that the family came from North Carolina.

Thursday, October 11, 2018

Social Media is not Data Storage: Google to Shut Down Google+



During the past couple of years, many people, including genealogists, have been transitioning their blogs to social media such as Facebook etc. They have also used social media websites for "genealogy" storing photos and documents online. The recent announcement made by Google that it will be "sunsetting consumer Google+" highlights the dependence all of the users of social networking websites have on the continuation of what is essentially a business to make money. None of the online social networking websites is "permanent." They are all totally dependent on the whims and goals of those who own and run them.

At the very least, if you are using a social networking website to "store" your photos or other content, you should backup all of your data to another storage media constantly and regularly. When I say "another storage media," I do not mean another social networking website. I mean your computer's storage. Any data that you wish to preserve should also be backed up to hard drives, flash drives, and online data storage.


Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Digital Strategy at the Library of Congress


Apparently, the Library of Congress is finally beginning a comprehensive plan to digitize some of their vast collections of records. As the claimed largest library in the world, they are certainly not the leader in the number and value of their online offerings. As genealogists, the recent history of the Library of Congress is far from promising. On November 25, 2013, the Library of Congress closed its Local History and Genealogy Reading Room and moved the reference collection into the "stacks." Access to this traditional genealogical resource is now in the Main Reading room. From my own experience, without guidance, a first-time user would not be able to find the books and other resources.

There is also an inherent contradiction in the current efforts of the Library of Congress due to the fact that they are also the agency responsible for the controversial access policies inherent in the United States Copyright Law because the Copyright Office is an integral part of the Library. Because of Congressional action, use and access to many valuable research materials have been overwhelmingly restricted. It does seem unlikely that the governmental agency most responsible for "protecting" and limiting access to intellectual resources should become the leader in making those same resources available.

Policies and budgetary constraints at both the Library of Congress and the National Archives have severely limited the number and availability of digitized records from both institutions. It would be a huge change if this present plan includes real changes in the number and availability to access items in both institutions collections.

It will be interesting to see what will happen, although I do not expect any significant changes during what is left of my lifetime. As a final comment, I would suggest that the Internet Archive or Archive.org may become the largest library in the world considering its growth during the past few months and years assuming they catch up with the National Library of Australia.

Sunday, October 7, 2018

Beware of Bogus Facebook Friend Requests


I have seen a rise again in bogus Facebook friend requests. When you receive a friend request, you can certainly decline and delete the request. There is no obligation at all to accept any requests. However, you might get a request from someone you know or who may be part of your "interest group." In some cases, you may recognize the person and think, "don't I already have them as a friend?" In many cases, the answer is yes.

What is happening is that Facebook parasites are creating or cloning fake copies of existing Facebook people and then sending out friend requests to get huge numbers of friends. They can then use the bogus friend to send out spam posts.  The easiest solution to this problem is to check any new friend requests against your existing friends. Simply use the name of the person on the friend request and search your list of friends. If you find that you already have the person as a friend then delete the duplicate request.

The person who has been duplicated does not know about and cannot control the duplication. This is a serious bug in the Facebook program and probably results in millions of bogus "people" on the program.

Other bogus friend requests appear to be real people. You can detect that they are bogus by the fact that their photo is usually a woman and the accompanying photos are suggestive. These fake requests are almost always from undesirable or pornographic websites. One other way to detect these fake friend requests is that they usually have a very small number of friends. Think about it, why would someone you do not know send you a friend request as one of their first friends?

This is a major problem with Facebook and could ultimately ruin the entire program.

Don't respond to any request in Facebook that asks you to click on any link. Here is that type of bogus request that came through Messenger:

I suppose that should Facebook become unusable, we can all move to something else.


Saturday, October 6, 2018

Looking at Genealogy as Information


Back in 1948, Claude E. Shannon published a groundbreaking paper entitled, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." This paper is viewed as the foundation for the development of electronic computers and the transmission of information over electronic circuits. However, there are many of the concepts in that first paper and in the subsequent development of information theory that relate directly to the creation of an online family tree, particularly of the type implemented on the FamilySearch.org website known as the "Family Tree." The concepts of the general theory of the transmission of information can be applied to genealogy by analogy.

Here is a schematic diagram of a general communication system:

http://math.harvard.edu/~ctm/home/text/others/shannon/entropy/entropy.pdf
If we substitute genealogical terminology, the analogy becomes obvious.
If we view genealogy as a system with information sources as the input and accurate family trees as the output, then we should begin focusing on reducing the noise or unsupported information and increasing the quality of the signal or enhancing the level of support for the conclusions made by entering information in our individual records. What is the underlying principle upon which we can "tune" our genealogical information stream? The one tuning principle is adherence to a strict consideration of the location of each event recorded. It is certainly true that people move around, but the main challenge of genealogical research is attaching the events in a person's life to very specific geographical locations. The benefit of focusing on the location of the events is evident in the reduction of unsupported information. Additionally, we can conclude that any information that is unsupported by researched sources is no more than noise.

Looking at genealogy in this way emphasizes the importance of careful and documented information. This goes back to the early saying about computer programming: garbage in -- garbage out. Here is a good example.

https://wattsupwiththat.wordpress.com/2016/01/28/300-scientists-tell-chairman-of-the-house-science-committee-we-want-noaa-adhere-to-law-of-the-data-quality-act/



Pirates of the Pedigree


Here is a press release from Family History Expos' President Holly Hansen about the upcoming virtual conference called "Pirates of the Pedigree." I will be presenting on Saturday, at 8:00 am, MDT.
October is a wonderful month, especially after the typically sultry weeks of late summer. Known for its brilliantly colored fall leaves and the holidays of Columbus Day and Halloween, this October brings Pirates of the Pedigree, a first-of-its-kind, world-wide event for all family historians. 
Beginning on Monday, October 15, a full week filled with 58 classes will be broadcast over the internet. Holly T. Hansen, president of the company, has gathered an outstanding group of presenters to teach in their area of expertise. 
As if the classes weren’t enough to entice you to participate, check out the wonderful Sponsors and Vendors. What an impressive collection of businesses focused on serving the needs of genealogists! 
We’re gearing up for a fun week, with some activities preceding the event. The first one is being announced with this notice. Play along! 
Registration is still open. At $99.00 for the entire event, each class costs under $2.00! In addition, you will receive the handouts and extended access to watch the class presentation videos over and over. The extended access will be especially helpful if the original broadcast is at a time that is inconvenient for you. 
A selected number of classes will be made available at no charge. However, handouts and extended access will not be included without a registration.  
Join us for this groundbreaking event in the world of family history. Visit us at https://familyhistoryexpos.com/viewevent/index/190/#es to get the full panoramic picture of Pirates of the Pedigree.


Thursday, October 4, 2018

Don't Forget to Look at Probate Inventories, Accountings and Sales

An example of a probate inventory and valuation
For hundreds and in some cases, thousands of years, the transfer of a person's property after death has been the subject of legal or governmental action. These procedures imposed at death are collectively referred to as probate actions and almost every country of the world has developed some form of this structured transfer of property. Our system of probate in the United States is primarily derived from English law. Because probate actions involve the transfer of interests in personal and real property, there are a huge number of records of these transactions. None of these records were kept for the purpose of benefitting genealogists or genealogical research. Most of the time, the interest of the community in handling probate matters was concerned with taxes imposed on the transfer of the decedent's interest in the property.

For the past month's, my wife and I have been serving a Senior Mission for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as Record Preservation Specialists for FamilySearch. We have been working in the Maryland State Archives helping to digitize probate records. During our work of digitizing these records, we have been impressed by their immense value for genealogical research. Unfortunately, most researchers who even know to use probate records consider wills to be the chief records and the only ones of value. I don't want to understate the value of wills, but the entire probate process includes a whole series of valuable records. Some of the valuable types of records usually classified as probate records include the following:
  • Wills
  • Estate inventories and accountings
  • Reports of sales
  • Guardianships
  • Indentures
and here in a former slave state, Certificates of Freedom. In addition, there are all the Court's procedural documents, signatures, and the other associated documents that also contain valuable information. The inventories and accounts of sale are some of the most interesting documents. Here in Maryland, and elsewhere, they list all of the names of those who purchase items from the estate sale. These lists often include the names of all of the family members living in the general area of the location of the deceased's property. These lists also indicate the economic level of the deceased and provide an insight into the types of property owned. In short, they are not only helpful for research, but they are also fascinating. 

Monday, October 1, 2018

Expanded Commentary on The Rules of Genealogy: Rule One


I have been referring to the Rules of Genealogy for some time now and I thought it was about time to produce an expanded commentary on each of the existing eleven rules and who knows, I may discover another rule before I am finished with this commentary. Here I go with Rule One.

Rule One: When the baby was born, the mother was there.

This is a surprisingly simply stated rule that has a complex background and application. Rule One has its origin in the almost universal ignorance of history and geography of the practitioners of genealogy. It is also my experience that even those who know both the history and geography consistently make errors based on their failure to apply their own knowledge. It is also interesting that when someone does not know something, they are usually unaware of their lack of knowledge. My comments are not intended to apply to those few genealogists who have an extensive background in history and/or geography and particularly political history. I also do not exclude myself from this category when I do research in an area of the world with which I am unfamiliar.

The crux of this rule is the common practice of identifying people by name and date and ignoring the location of events in their lives. Genealogical research should always (ALWAYS) begin with an identification of the exact location of an event in an ancestor or relative's life. Even though I write about this frequently, I always have the impression that I am trying to wear away a glass wall as amply illustrated by the November 28, 2015 episode of Dr. Who entitled, "Heaven Sent." Dr. Who's wall is made of Azbantium, a mineral 400 times harder than diamond.

Well, just like Dr. Who, I will keep pounding on the wall until I stop writing because of whatever cause.

Unless you happen to believe in the multi-universe theory, everything that happens in our particular timeline is associated with a specific geographic location on this earth. In order for an event to become discoverable through historical/genealogical research, some record has to be made of the event beginning at the time the event occurs. However, let's assume that the event is not immediately reduced to a physical record as can happen with oral histories or recording memories. We can assume, and usually do, that the longer the time between the event and the physical recording of the event, the greater possibility exists that the event is not memorialized accurately. There are a number of different ways that historians and genealogists have expressed these phenomena such as using the terms "primary sources" and "secondary sources."

Using the birth of a baby as the basis of the rule comes from the physical fact that the mother of the baby is always present at the birth. The rule refers to the common issue of finding that children listed with a particular set of parents were born in different places making it highly unlikely that they are actually the children of the mother listed in the family. There is also a reference to the fact that the mother has to be alive when the baby is born or die at about the same time of the birth. The corollary to this rule is that the father does not have to be present when the baby is born and so locating events in a mother's life are inherently more reliable than the location of events in a father's life.

This rule is the first rule of genealogical research because I usually have to point out this fact and repeat the rule on a very regular basis when I am doing research with or for another person. I could examine any extended family tree such as the FamilySearch.org Family Tree or any other such compilation of user-submitted genealogy and find multiple instances of the violation of this rule in a matter of minutes. I don't usually find too many people who want to take me up on this challenge.

Sunday, September 30, 2018

Genealogy and the Romani

By AdiJapan - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1253421 Flag of the Romani people
Possibly, one of the most persecuted minorities in the world are the Romani, also called gypsies or Roma. Rom is the Romani word for "man of the Roma ethnic group." The plural of the noun "Rom" is "Roma." The word "Romani" is the feminine adjective and the masculine form is "Romano." Here is a short description of the Romani from Wikipedia: Romani people.
The Romani (also spelled Romany /ˈroʊməni/, /ˈrɒ-/), colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan. 
Genetic findings appear to confirm the Romani "came from a single group that left northwestern India about 1,500 years ago." Genetic research published in the European Journal of Human Genetics "revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma." The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies (or Gipsies), which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe, especially Central, Eastern and Southern Europe (including Turkey, Spain and Southern France). The Romani originated in northern India and arrived in Mid-West Asia and Europe around 1,000 years ago. They have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people: the two groups have been said to have separated from each other or, at least, to share a similar history. Specifically, the ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the 6th and 11th century.
Genealogy is of universal interest and it should not be surprising the Romani genealogy has some very active and even academic methodologies. Here is a list of websites dedicated to Romani genealogy. In some cases, you may need to be aware of the emphasis on copyright protection exhibited by some of the writers.


Here are a very few books and articles on the subject:

Hayward, James. Gypsy jib: a Romany dictionary. Wenhaston: Holm Oak, 2003.
Michael L. Chohaney. “Hidden in Plain Sight: Mixed Methods and the Marble Orchards of the Vlach Rom (Gypsies) in Toledo, Ohio.” Journal of Cultural Geography 31, no. 1 (2014): 57–80.
“New Methodological Approaches in the Anthropological Demography of Romani Groups: An Example from the Study of the Evolution of the Infant and Child Mortality of the Gitanos or Calé of Spain (1871-2007).” Sociologia: Revista Da Faculdade de Letras Da Universidade Do Porto tematico (2014): 175–204.
“Romanies,” 2014, 213.

I have researched at least two of my lines back to individuals that have indications that they might be or have been Romani. So I do have a personal interest in the subject.




 

How to Start Learning History for Genealogists (and everyone else too)


If you obtained a college or university degree in history, where would you go to find a job in the United States? Clearly, many employers are simply looking for a "college degree" and don't really care about the subject matter studied, but if you wanted to pursue a career in history, what would you do? If you look at the list of suggested jobs for those with a history degree, most of them assume that you would seek additional training in some other pursuit or teach history in high school or become an elementary school teacher.

The reality of today's school systems is that history, as a subject, is not being taught at all. It has been replaced by "social studies" which consists mostly of propaganda about how minorities have been treated since the arrival of the Pilgrims in 1620. Children all know about Martin Luther King, Jr. but have never heard of Thomas Jefferson or James Madison. If you want an interesting experience, ask to see a middle school student's history book.

This is not a new situation. I did have an American History class in high school and some history in grade school, but my high school class never got past the end of the Civil War and most of the history I had in grade school was Arizona history because that is what we studied in Arizona. There is a distinct opposition in the American school systems to teaching world history at all and even if world history is taught, the emphasis is on Western Civilization, not the world.

Ask yourself, when was the last time you learned about the history of Africa or Southeast Asia? In my opinion, one of the reasons why the U.S. Government was able to fight a war in South Vietnam was the dismal lack of any knowledge among Americans about the history of that part of the world. How many people know or knew that the U.S. was supporting French foreign domination of the area and not the interests of those people living in Vietnam? You might want to read what happened at the 1954 Geneva Conference for a start.

How does this affect the pursuit of genealogy? Well, genealogy is history albeit a very specific version of history dealing with particular families. But these families lived and died and were part of the "history" of their country and the world. I find that most people cannot tell me even what religion their ancestors believed in or what political divisions were in force at the time they lived. Both of these "facts" are important in identifying and locating documents about ancestral families. Some of the most common "brick wall" issues in genealogical research are instigated as a result of unsupported assumptions about ancestral families that have no basis in history or geography.

I have commonly used the boat floating in a lake analogy for those who do not consider or even know about the background history and geography, including political geography, of the areas where their ancestors lived.


Genealogical research without a significant knowledge of the history and the geography of where events in your ancestors' lives occurred is like sitting in a boat on a lake with a rifle and shooting into the water hoping to hit a fish when you don't even know if there are any fish in the water.

Where do you start? Well, who are are interested in finding at the moment? Let's suppose that your ancestor came from Europe in the mid-1800s and appears in Maryland. You might think to begin research in the country of origin, but common genealogical methodology dictates that you begin research in the country of arrival. So what do you know about Maryland history? Wait a minute. Your records show that his descendants said he or she was from "Maryland." Where were they living? In one recent case I have been researching, the known family was living in Mississippi and had a "tradition" that the family came from Maryland. You need to start with research in the last verifiable place where an event occurred in that particular family line. Not back in the place where they may have come from. So what do you know about the history, geography, and political boundary changes in Mississippi? Where would you go to find that information?

What I do is start with examining the county boundary changes associated with the times when the events occurred. What do I mean by "events?" Births, deaths, land purchases, censuses, school records, etc. Interestingly, when I work through this with people I am helping, I sometimes have to start with them and their parents because none of the other information is sufficiently documented to be reliable.

To start, look at maps. Google Maps is a good place to begin. Also, look for the places in Wikipedia and read the available history on that website. From there, start doing research online search for "the history of..." and go from there to books and other records. If you are like me, you will probably find that there is a degree of confusion about the places, dates, and appropriate jurisdictions in what has already been recorded about your family. Don't be surprised.

Thursday, September 27, 2018

Books, Ownership, and Copyright


Let's suppose you look online and see a newly published book. After reading a few reviews, you decide to buy the book and being a traditionalist, you order a hard-bound copy for your personal library. You pay for the book using your online account or with a credit card. Within one or two days, the book arrives at your door. It turns out to be a wonderful book and you enjoy reading it. Do you now "own" your book? Surprisingly, that is a serious and not a silly question. If you do not own the book outright, what are the limitations on your "ownership?" Do any of these limitations change if you had purchased an electronic version of the same book? If you own the hardback copy of "your" book, do you have to pay for an ebook copy of the same book?

The answers to all these questions are pertinent to the crisis in the free flow of information in our worldwide society. As genealogists, we bump into this problem on a regular basis whether we are aware of it or not. Here is an example from the FamilySearch.org Books section of the website.
I have used this notice as an example recently but I am returning to the subject of the previous post. What does this notice mean and why have the book listed online if it cannot be viewed? I view copyrighted books online all the time. I use a library app such as OverDrive.com or the OpenLibrary.org and read the entire book. What is the main difference between checking a physical book out of a library and reading a digital copy of the book from a library website? In both instances, I only have "possession" of the content of the book for a limited period of time, usually two weeks.

Back to the issue of owning a book. When you purchase a book that is subject to a claim of copyright, even though I have purchased a book, the content and use of the content is still not under my control. For example, I could not reproduce my "purchased" copy of the book and sell it. Technically, what you purchase when you purchase a book subject to copyright is a limited license. The terms of your license are contained in the provisions of the U.S. Copyright Act and all of the cases decided by all of the Federal Courts on copyright in the United States.

There are some real property analogies. Even if you "own" the largest interest in real property called a "fee simple" ownership, you are still subject to real estate taxes from various government agencies. If you fail to pay your taxes, you may ultimately lose your real property. You may disagree with the government's right to assess your property with taxes, but there is almost nothing you can do about it.

The main problem with the government limitations on books and other intellectual property is that the limitations that were originally designed to apply only for a limited period of time now extend for more than the lifetime of anyone now living. So, if you purchase a book published in 2018, you will die before the copyright expires. In fact, probably most of your children and even your grandchildren will still be subject to the copyright. The current copyright term is 70 years after the death of author. but if a work has corporate authorship, the term is 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation, whichever expires first. If you have a particularly long-lived author, you might have a copyright that lasts for almost 150 years. What other parts of our government do you know that might last that long?

In reference to the notice above, I have no idea what it means or why it would even appear. Obviously, a copyright does not prevent a book from being viewed online. However, the paper copy of a book and the ebook copy of the same book can be separately copyright protected. In the case of most of the books pertinent to genealogy, there is very little benefit from copyright protection. If you publish a personal family history, for example, yes, you have a copyright. But why would you want to protect the contents from being copied? If you think you are going to write the great American novel, perhaps, but considering the literary value of most of the family histories I have looked at, I don't think commercial viability is an issue.

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

A New Look for FamilyHistoryExpos

https://familyhistoryexpos.com/
Family HistoryExpos has a new look that appears to be a lot more functional and informative. You should take some time to explore all the options of this updated format. For example, the link to Research Guides takes you this page.

https://familyhistoryexpos.com/shop/index/18

Perhaps you were unaware that all of these resources were available. In addition, there is a link to the upcoming virtual family history conference called "Pirates of the Pedigree." The conference link takes you to a page with all of the information about this Conference that will be held from October 15th to October 20th, 2018.

https://familyhistoryexpos.com/viewevent/index/190
You should also check out Holly Hansen's YouTube Channel. She is the President of Family History Expos and has over 50 videos available. I should also mention that I am also on the Board of Directors and have been an active contributor to Family History Expos for many years.

https://www.youtube.com/user/FamilyHistoryExpos
Check out both the website and the YouTube Channel, you might be surprised at what you will find.





Tuesday, September 25, 2018

BYU Family History Library YouTube Channel logs over 500,000 Views

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7hqNOQt-2AfeVEpDuc7sCA/featured
Having 500,000 views on YouTube.com may seem like small potatoes, but for the Brigham Young University Family History Library it is a milestone. There are now close to 400 videos with more being regularly added to the collection.

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7hqNOQt-2AfeVEpDuc7sCA/videos
I have only been doing one webinar a month while here in Annapolis, Maryland working at the Maryland State Archives as a FamilySearch Document Preservation Specialist, but others at the BYU Family History Library have been regularly contributing. You can also see a list of the videos on the BYU Family History Library website. Many of these have been made available so they can be viewed in Chapels of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since YouTube.com is usually blocked in the Chapels.

If you have a suggested topic for a future video, you can leave me a comment or contact me on Facebook or email me and I will make sure the topic is considered.

Monday, September 24, 2018

Case Studies in Migration: Part Ten: The Interstate Highway System

By SPUI - National Atlas, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=945257
In 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act.  The Act originally authorized the spending of $25 billion for the construction of a 41,000-mile interstate highway system across the country. One of the original stated purposes was to provide access for the defense of the United States in the event of a land-based attack. The map above is from the National Atlas, now part of the National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of the Interior.


Stepping back a few years, one of the first transcontinental roads was the Lincoln Highway that was dedicated in 1913 and ran from Times Square in New York City to Lincoln Park in San Francisco and crossed 13 states. The original highway was 3,389 miles long. It was mostly replaced by the currently designated Interstate 80.

One use of a map of the Interstate Highway system for genealogists may not be very obvious. A map of the Interstate Highway system shows that the highways roughly follow the historic wagon roads and thereby indicate the overall migration patterns of the United States. This can be dramatically seen in the juxtaposition of the Beale Wagon road of 1857, Historic Route 66, the BNSF Railroad (formerly the Santa Fe Railroad), and Interstate 40:


The faint line in between Interstate 40 and Historic Route 66 is the old Beale Wagon Road and it is still visible as a wagon track across the desert. It is extremely important to understand how and why people moved from place to place in any country. Researching your ancestors and other relatives involves finding documents and the only way you can find documents is to know where to look. If you have a person who appears in the record in California, unless they spoke Spanish, they came from somewhere else. The essence of learning about and making progress in genealogical research is discovering where to look for records. Migration patterns are one consistently helpful clue in tracking down elusive ancestors.

Here are links to the previous Case Studies:

Case #1: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/08/case-studies-in-american-migration-part.html
Case #2: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/08/case-studies-in-american-migration-part_26.html
Case #3: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/08/case-studies-in-american-migration-part_30.html
Case #4: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/09/case-studies-in-american-migration-part.html
Case #5: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/09/case-studies-in-american-migration-part_12.html
Case #6: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/09/case-studies-in-american-migration-part_13.html
Case #7: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/09/case-studies-in-migration-westward.html
Case #8: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/09/case-studies-in-migration-second-great.html
Case #9: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/09/case-studies-in-migration-homestead-acts.html


Sunday, September 23, 2018

Your Grandmother's Name is not Private nor Secure



Do the terms private and secure and personal have anything in common? Yes, they are all used to describe things that are not private, not secure and not personal. For example, one common "security question" used by financial institutions is "What is your grandmother's (or grandfather's) first name?"
Anyone with a modicum of genealogical research experience realizes that finding a person's grandparents in public, online records is relatively easy for almost anyone in a developed country.

What else? Is your social security number personal, private, or secure? Hardly. It is a government issued number used mainly for government purposes and co-opted by numerous other agencies and business for identification. It is by definition public information. It is an outstandingly poor method of identification and having such a limited and archaic method of personal identification makes obtaining someone's Social Security Number essentially trivial.  Notwithstanding this unfortunate consequence, Social Security Numbers are so frequently "stolen" that they have become essentially meaningless. For example, at one point, my own Social Security Number was used as my student number in school and my ID number in the military. How private is that?

If anyone, including the United States government, really cared about identity theft and personal security, they would use a "secure" method of identifying people that relied on encryption and/or biometrics. We are stuck with 17th Century security methods in the 21st Century.

What about credit cards? Is your credit card number private, personal, or secure? Again, hardly. When was the last time you used your credit card to make a purchase? What happened to the information on your credit card when you gave it to the clerk in the store or pushed your card into an electronic slot? Do you really know? Where did you get your credit card? In the mail? From a bank or other financial institution? Do they have a record of your credit card number? Once again, that number is plainly public.

Can you really be secure, private, or have personal information? Not when we have to provide much of that same information for routine business, social, and other transactions. How long did it take you to fill out the form presented to you at the time of your last doctor's visit? Did you pay for the doctor's services with your credit card?

Identity theft is a crime only because of the way we ignore technology when we transact business in our world today. Can identity theft be prevented? Not as long as we continue to use outmoded and primitive methods for our business transactions.

Here is an example of a secure transaction.

Let's suppose I wanted to buy gas at a local service station. Today, all I would have to do is drive in, put my card and a "pin" number in the machine, usually my zip code (a very public number) and fill my tank with gas. How could this be made more secure? Hmm. How about two part ID? When I insert my credit card into the machine, it sends me a long randomly encrypted code number that triggers an app on my smartphone that requires me to use my thumbprint to proceed with the transaction. My phone then has to send another randomly encrypted number to the machine that then proceeds with the sale. What if any other sale, online or in person, required the same procedure.

This method might take a few seconds longer than what we do now. It might not be 100% effective, but it might stop a high percentage of the use of unauthorized credit cards. We have the technology to be secure, personal, and to some extent, private. But we do not use these methods because they might add an additional few seconds to a transaction or a few cents to the cost of transactions.

Do we really want to be secure or private? Good questions to ask. 

Saturday, September 22, 2018

In Social Networking, Pinterest Rules

https://www.pinterest.com/jamestanner45/pins/

It seems to me that in the rapidly evolving social networking world that Pinterest and Instagram have become the venues of choice for most of the people around me. Granted, Facebook is still holding its own, but I watch my Pinterest site grow at percentages such as a 42% increase in daily viewers. I am also finding that I can get more information about my family faster by checking Instagram than I can through Facebook. I have been limiting my Instagram links so that the venue does not get clogged with non-family information but Pinterest is wide open. Since I am now posting to a large number of social networking venues, I have no idea how many people I am connecting with.

OK, so what about the blogs? I have been noting for some time now that the "golden age" of blogging has now passed. I continue to use blogs as my primary method of communicating because I like the ability to write, add photos and screenshots, and edit the content before publishing. But you might notice that I am trending more towards interaction on Facebook. I post all of my blog posts on my Genealogy's Star Facebook page.

https://www.facebook.com/Genealogysstar/

The idea is to provide a one-stop-shop for content. As I return to Provo in a few weeks, I will be ramping up my involvement with both The Family History Guide and FamilyHistoryExpos. I just posted another webinar for the BYU Family History Library YouTube Channel also.


Using Multiple Online Genealogy Programs to Find Your Ancestors

So you should not have any trouble finding me online.

Friday, September 21, 2018

Case Studies in Migration: Part Nine: The Homestead Acts

HR 125, An Act to secure homesteads to actual settlers on the public domain, March 25, 1862, printed House bill with Senate amendments RG 46, Records of the U.S. Senate
The Homestead Acts, beginning in 1862, had more impact on the population of the country as a whole than almost any other government action, law, or policy. Here are some statistics from the National Park Service, Homesteading by the Numbers.
  • 10 Percent of U.S. land given away under the Homestead Act.
  • 30 Number of states in which homestead lands were located.
  • 40 Percent of homesteaders that "proved up" their claims earned a deed from the federal government.
  • 123 Years the Homestead Act was in effect.
  • 160 Acres in a typical homestead claim.
  • 4,000,000 Approximate number of claims made under the Homestead Act.
  • 27,000,000 Total number of acres distributed by the Homestead Act.
The Homestead States corresponded to the Federal Land States as opposed to the State Land States. The Federal Land was acquired after the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. In State-Land States, the land is still mainly owned by the individual states, mostly the original colonies, with the major exception of Texas. Here is a map of the two divisions.

https://www.nps.gov/home/learn/education/classrooms/hsact68post1.htm
If your ancestors settled in the homestead states during the early years of settlement, it is entirely possible that their motivation for moving was the promise of homestead land. There were a whole series of Homestead Acts. Here is a short summary of each of the acts. You can see more detailed information and a lot of citations in the Wikipedia article, "Homestead Acts.  I also suggest reviewing "How the West Was Settled," by Greg Bradsher for the National Archives.

https://www.archives.gov/files/publications/prologue/2012/winter/homestead.pdf

Donation Land Claims Act of 1850


The Donation Land Claim Act allowed settlers to claim land in the Oregon Territory, that included land in the modern states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and parts of Wyoming. Settlers were allowed to claim 320 or 640 acres of land for free between 1850 and 1854, and then at a cost of $1.25 per acres until the law expired in 1855.

Homestead Act of 1862

The original homestead act that was motivated to move settlers into territory that the North wanted to preserve as "free states" starting during the Civil War. Quoting from the Wikipedia article:
The homestead was an area of public land in the West (usually 160 acres or 65 ha) granted to any US citizen willing to settle on and farm the land. The law (and those following it) required a three-step procedure: file an application, improve the land, and file for the patent (deed). Any citizen who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government (including freed slaves after the fourteenth amendment) and was at least 21 years old or the head of a household, could file an application to claim a federal land grant. Women were eligible. The occupant had to reside on the land for five years, and show evidence of having made improvements. The process had to be complete within seven years.
Southern Homestead Act of 1866

Again a politically motivated act aimed at giving land to poor tenant and sharecropper farmers in the South. See Southern Homestead Act of 1866.

Timber Culture Act of 1873

The Act granted up to 160 acres of land to a homesteader who would plant at least 40 acres (revised to 10) of trees over a period of several years. This quarter-section could be added to an existing homestead claim, offering a total of 320 acres to a settler. This offered a cheap plot of land to homesteaders. See Wikipedia: Timber Culture Act.

Kinkaid Amendment of 1904

Quoting from Wikipedia:
Recognizing that the Sandhills (Nebraska) of north-central Nebraska, required more than 160 acres for a claimant to support a family, Congress passed the Kinkaid Act which granted larger homestead tracts, up to 640 acres, to homesteaders in Nebraska. See Kinkaid Act.
Enlarged Homestead Act of 1909

the Enlarged Homestead Act was passed in 1909 to enable dryland farming. It increased the number of acres for a homestead to 320 acres of marginal lands (especially in the Great Plains), which could not be easily irrigated.

Stock-Raising Homestead Act of 1916

The Stock-Raising Homestead Act allocated settlers 640 acres for ranching purposes. See Stock-Raising Homestead Act.

Subsistence Homesteads provisions under the New Deal – 1930

Quoting from the Wikipedia article, "Subsistence Homesteads Division:"
The Subsistence Homesteads Division of the US Department of the Interior (DSH or SHD) was a New Deal agency that was intended to give safe residences to urban poor in small plots of land that would allow them to sustain themselves. Unlike subsistence farming, subsistence homesteading is based on a family member or members having part-time, paid employment.
The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 ended homesteading;

The sales of public lands were conducted by the General Land Office or GLO. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has a website with the GLO records. See General Land Office Records.

https://glorecords.blm.gov/search/default.aspx

Here are links to the previous Case Studies:

Case #1: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/08/case-studies-in-american-migration-part.html
Case #2: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/08/case-studies-in-american-migration-part_26.html
Case #3: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/08/case-studies-in-american-migration-part_30.html
Case #4: https://genealogysstar.blogspot.com/2018/09/case-studies-in-american-migration-part.html